
The Fundamental Mathematics and Physics
I.A. Eganova, W. Kallies
Innate Interconnection in the World of events: methodical commentary on the introduction of a new mass standard
This paper is devoted to the two essential circumstances that should be taken into account when using the new standard (prototype) of mass  the kilogram, primarily, in the procedure of measuring mass by means of the Kibble balance, i.e.: the innate interconnection in the World of events (in spacetime) and the belonging of the mass standard to complex structured objects.
In the three sections of the paper (sec. 2  sec. 4) the main traits of the mentioned above circumstances are discussed and illustrated, due to (sec. 1) the decision of the International Committee for Weights and Measures on redefining the prototype of the kilogram after 20 May 2019.
In the limelight is a phenomenon of change of mass of a complex organized object due to change of its inner energy that is associated with the phenomenon of initializing influence of external irreversible processes that belongs to temporal aspect of the objective reality.
Theoretical considerations (sec. 2) are supported with direct and clear experimental material (sec. 3 and sec. 4).
In conclusion, general recommendations on measuring mass of structured (on atomic level) object by means of the Kibble balance, that follow from the discussed circumstances, are given.
Keywords:
mass prototype, kilogram, Kibble balance, innate (a
priory) interconnection, World of events (spacetime), structured
objects, open systems, irreversible processes
A.K. Guts
The Kulakov structures in description of Universe
It is shown how the idea of the view of the World may
proceed not from “what the World is made of”, but from what samples
(patterns) it is made of. Such patterns can
be socalled physical structures of Novosibirsk physicist V.I. Kulakov,
generalized later by G.G. Mikhailichenko and
Yu.S. Vladimirov. We show that physical structures detect their
presence in sociopsychological relationships of people, in
economic relations of people, enterprises and economies, in
botany. Moreover, it is shown that the structures of
KulakovVladimirov suggest us how we can change the physical
laws.
Keywords:
Kulakov structures, physics, sociology, psychology,
microeconomy, macroeconomy, botany, Lem cosmogony
Mourat Tchoshanov, Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich
Summation of Divergent Infinite Series: How Natural are the Current Tricks
Infinities are usually an interesting topic for
students, especially when they lead to what seems like paradoxes,
when we have two different seemingly correct answers to the same
question. One of such cases is summation of divergent infinite
sums: on the one hand, the sum is clearly infinite, on the other
hand, reasonable ideas lead to a finite value for this same sum. A
usual way to come up with a finite sum for a divergent infinite
series is to find a 1parametric family of series that includes
the given series for a specific value \(p = p_0\) of the
corresponding parameter and for which the sum converges for some
other values \(p\). For the values \(p\) for which this sum converges,
we find the expression \(s(p)\) for the resulting sum, and then we
use the value \(s(p_0)\) as the desired sum of the divergent
infinite series. To what extent is the result reasonable depends
on how reasonable is the corresponding generalizing family. In
this paper, we show that from the physical viewpoint, the existing
selection of the families is very natural: it is in perfect
accordance with the natural symmetries.
Keywords:
divergent infinite series, symmetries
Applied Mathematics and Modeling
S.A. Terentyev, A.K. Guts
The Spectral Density of the Electromagnetic Field for Electrical and Magnetic Dipoles in a Vertically Inhomogeneous Conductive Medium
The electromagnetic field in electrical exploration
problems is often represented as integrals with a fastoscillating
nucleus. When calculating these integrals on a computer, it is
necessary to deform the contour of integration into the plane of
the complex variable. The article studies the allowable
deformation region of the integration contour in the case of a
nonuniform medium. The source of the field is a vertical dipole.
A similar problem was solved for a horizontally layered medium
with a harmonious electrical or magnetic dipole as a source.
Keywords:
Electrical exploration, electromagnetic field of
vertical electric or magnetic dipole, fastoscillating integrals,
deformation contour, complex plane, absence of singular points,
deformation domain
L.A. Volodchenkova, A.K. Guts
Equilibrium Dynamics of Undecomposed Litter in Forest Ecosystems
In the article the Nash equilibrium states for
undecomposed litter in forest ecosystems within the framework of
the theory differential games are investigated. It is shown that in
equilibrium the decay of litter goes at a lower speed.
Keywords:
The Nash equilibrium, forest ecosystem, litter, vegetation, differential games
Computer Science
A.A. Senkovskaya, I.I. Furayeva
Analysis of the Source Data in the Task of Curriculum Optimization
The principles of the influence of working curricula on the teaching load as a whole and on the final schedule of classes in the end, as well as the need to optimize them are presented. It is shown that a preliminary analysis of the source data reduces the number of variables studied. The selection of the algorithm is carried out for the subsequent analysis of the working curricula.
Keywords:
curriculum optimization, modeling, reducing the number of variables
Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich
Was There a PreBiblical 9Ary Number System?
In the Biblical Hebrew, in general, numbers were
represented in decimal form. For example, a representation of 123
consists of three symbols that represent 100, 20, and 3. However,
there are exceptions to this rule: for two numbers, 15 and 16,
representation involve number 9, not number 10: 15 is represented
as 9 + 6, and 16 as 9 + 7. Maybe this means that in the past,
people used a 9ary number system? In this paper, we explain why
this hypothesis makes sense, how it explains that this system
disappeared, and how we can use this hypothesis to further ``spice
up'' the teaching of different number systems.
Keywords:
9ary system, seven plus minus two law, ternary number system, Biblical mathematics, teaching number systems
Information Security
Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich
Why STEM?
Is the idea of combining science, technology,
engineering, and mathematics into a single STEM complex a
fashionable tendency, as some educators think  or is there a deep
reason behind this combination? In this paper, we show that the
latest developments in Theory of Computation make such a union
necessary and desirable.
Keywords:
STEM, theory of computation, feasible algorithms, NPcomplete problems
Olga Kosheleva, Julian Viera, Vladik Kreinovich
From Gig Economy to Gig Education
Modern economy has benefited from gig economy
idea, where, instead of hiring permanent employees, a company
assigns each task to the person who is the most efficient in
performing this task. This way, each task is performed in the best
possible way  by a person who is the most suited for this job.
Why not extend this idea to education? Every student deserves the
best possible teacher in every topic. So why not have a teacher
who is the best in town in explaining quadratic equations teach
quadratic equations to all the students from the town? In this
paper, we describe this proposal and its logistics in some
detail.
Keywords:
gig economy, sharing economy, gig education
Olga Kosheleva, Julian Viera, Vladik Kreinovich
Should School Feel Like a Family: Lessons from Business Controversy as Interpreted by Decision Making Theory
Traditional business theory promoted the ideal
of business as a family: everyone should feel good about each
other, all employees should feel good working together towards a
joint goal. Recently, however, researchers claim that this
wellpromoted ideal is unattainable, it is a ruse causing everyone
to overwork. Instead, these researchers propose a nonemotional
collaboration of adults working temporarily on a joint project. In
this paper, we show that this new trend is not just based on
anecdotal evidence, it actually has a solid foundation in decision
theory. So maybe we should apply this new trend to teaching too 
and place less emphasis on the need for everyone to become friends
and for teambuilding? Maybe  like the new business trend
suggests  we should reserve our feeling for our real families?
Keywords:
decision making theory, emotions, business practices, education